Scientific Program

Day 1

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Metal-organic framework membranes for CO2 capture, biofuel purification and water desalination: A computational perspective

    National University of Singapore
    Singapore
    Biography

    Jianwen Jiang is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the National University of Singapore. His research expertise is computational materials modeling and simulation, currently focused on membrane and nanoporous materials for energy, environmental, and pharmaceutical applications (e.g. carbon capture, water desalination, and drug delivery). He has published over 170 technical manuscripts, as well as a number of invited reviews and book chapters. He is on the Editorial Boards of Scientific Reports, Frontier in Materials, Advances in Materials Research, and Colloid and Interface Science Communications, among others.

    Abstract

    As a unique class of hybrid nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received tremendous interest over the last decade. The variation of metal oxides and the judicious choice of controllable organic linkers allow the pore size, volume and functionality to be tailored in a rational manner for designable architectures. MOFs thus provide a wealth of opportunities for engineering new membrane materials and have been considered as versatile candidates for many important potential applications. However, the number of MOFs synthesized to date is extremely large, thus experimental testing alone is economically expensive and practically formidable. With rapidly growing computational resources, molecular simulation has become an indispensable tool to characterize, screen, and design MOFs. Our research group has conducted comprehensive simulation studies in MOFs and their membranes for CO2 capture, biofuel purification, water desalination, etc. These systematic simulation studies will be summarized in this presentation to demonstrate that simulation at a molecular level can secure the quantitative interpretation of experimental observation, provide the microscopic insight from bottom-up, and facilitate the development of new MOF materials.

  • Recent advance in direct ethanol fuel cell for sustainable energy production

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
    Hong Kong
    Biography

    L An received his PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China. He is currently an Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. He has authored and co-authored more than 60 journal papers. His research interests include advanced energy conversion and storage technologies, such as fuel cells and flow batteries.

    Abstract

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which promise to be a clean and efficient energy production technology, have recently attracted worldwide attention, primarily because ethanol is a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and possesses many unique physicochemical properties including high energy density and ease of transportation, storage as well as handling. However, conventional DEFCs, which use acid proton exchange membranes and precious metal catalysts, result in rather low performance. In our research, we use alkaline anion exchange membranes as the solid electrolyte in DEFCs. It is demonstrated that the change from the acid membrane to an alkaline one leads to a significant performance boost. In addition, we also develop a novel hybrid DEFC, which consists of an alkaline anode and an acid cathode. To further optimize and improve the performance, we develop an integrated model for the direct ethanol fuel cell system. This high performance is attributed not only to the unique design, but also to the use of the integrated model.

  • Membrane bioreactor operation–past achievements and future challenges

    Erftverband University
    Germany
    Biography

    Christoph Brepols is the Project Manager for Planning of Municipal Wastewater Facilities and Deputy Head of the Wastewater Planning Department at Erftverband. He has been responsible for the completion of the company’s three full scale membrane bioreactors. Currently he is In-charge of the company’s Masterplan Wastewater 2025. He holds a Dipl-Ing in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Applied Science Aachen, Germany. He has joined the Erftverband in 1994. Since then he has been involved in several international R&D projects concerning MBR Technology and is Author and Co-author of several books and articles on MBR.

    Abstract

    The river water association, Erftverband looks back on two decades of experience in design and operation of municipal membrane bioreactors (MBR) in the Erft river catchment in Germany. During that time MBR operations have been monitored scientifically and process optimizations have taken place. For example between 2010 and 2015 the specific energy consumption of Nordkanal MBR (80,000 population equivalents) was cut down from 0.94 kWh/m³ to 0.63 kWh/m³ wastewater treated (see figure 1) while membrane filters remain in continuous operation since 2004. With that background, Erftverband sees a promising potential of MBR in the future development of wastewater treatment not only in the Erft river catchment but the energy consumption at Nordkanal MBR will be further reduced. Construction works for primary clarification and anaerobic sludge treatment started in February, 2017. Biological treatment will thus become more energy efficient while co-generation produces 30% of the electrical energy on site. There is remarkably lower number of microplastic particles in MBR effluent compared to wastewater treatment with secondary clarifiers or sand filtration. Erftverband currently prepares full-scale studies to practically assess operations of MBRs combined with activated carbon filtration for micropollutant removal. In an effort to consolidate the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by the year 2025 feasibility studies for WWTP retrofits also consider MBRs as valuable alternatives to conventional technologies because of the required high standards in wastewater treatment.

Membrane Filtration | Membrane Development and Characterization
Chair
Co-Chair
Speaker
  • Neophil long lasting hydrophilic PVDF ultrafiltration in GIGAMEM large modules: Benefits and case studies of Polymem large plants performances
    Speaker
    Olivier Lorain
    Polymem University
    France
    Biography

    Olivier Lorain is R&D Manager in the Polymem.He is from Environmental and Chemical Engineering Department and his Skills & Expertise in Membranes, Membrane Filtration,Membrane Separtion and Separation Science.

    Abstract

    Hollow fiber membranes, with a high packing density and an easy assembly in bundles and modules, are one of the most cost competitive solutions for water membrane filtration, re-use of wastewater, or prefiltration to reverse osmosis. Over the years, the investment and maintenance costs of such membrane systems have dramatically decreased and are now cost competitive with the conventional media filters. This was possible thanks to both module design evolution and associated process improvements. However, since the size of standard modules are today relatively small (from 4 to 12 inches), huge number of modules and huge number of associated connections, pipes and modules supports are necessary for the construction of large plants. It is a drawback for cost reduction which has reached a plateau. A way to start again costs saving, is to pass to larger pressurized module diameter. In this paper, a new and unique very large pressurized hollow fiber membranes module, developed recently by Polymem, is presented. The module, named Gigamem® UF240, with 600 mm diameter (24 inches) and 1.5 m height (60 inches), develops at least 540 m² of membrane filtration area. The module is set directly on the ground, eliminating the need of module supports. Furthermore, since the inlet of raw water and the outlet of treated water are both located at the top of the module, only two headers located at the top, are needed. Hollow fibers are gathered in individual bundles which facilitates the maintenance of the membranes: removal of fiber elements, fiber integrity check and membrane replacement. During membrane replacement, only the fiber elements will be replaced thus saving the cost of module vessels replacement. These design improvements allow significant reductions in both capital investment and operating costs. Furthermore Gigamem® module is equipped with Neophil™ membrane. This membrane, jointly developed by Polymem and Arkema, is based on a Kynar® PVDF backbone in which a new amphiphilic bloc-copolymer is anchored durably. Compared to other PVDF membranes where hydrophilicity is given by hydrophilic polymer doping, the Neophil™ hydrophilicity is optimized and maintained during all the lifetime of the membrane plants. Cleaning frequency requirements stay identical since the beginning and permeability trends remain very predictable. In the paper, Neophil™ and Gigamem association benefits are presented in detail. Plants building, footprint reduction and investment costs are discussed and compared with previous membrane module generation. Finally, pilot trails and large plants performances are presented in oil and gas, pre-treatment to seawater desalination, water and wastewater treatments fields.

  • Ultra-wetting graphene based ultrafiltration membranes for efficient wastewater treatment
    Speaker
    J Antony Prince
    Ngee Ann Polytechnic
    Singapore
    Biography

    J Antony Prince received his PhD in Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials at Newcastle University, UK. His main area of research interest is Membrane Technology and Applications. He has more than 10 years of research experience in Membrane Science and Engineering from both industrial and academic. He has secured more than SGD 6 million worth of projects from various funding agencies in Singapore. He has published his research findings in various reputed peer reviewed international journals and conferences. He has filed more than 10 patents. Two of his inventions have been licensed and a few patents are under evaluation for license. Since 2010, he has been with EWTCOI, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore, where he is currently the Senior Manager In-charge of Membrane Technology Section.

    Abstract

    Graphene, an sp2-hybridized, two-dimensional carbon material is gaining much attention in the field of membrane science and engineering. Theoretical analysis have also predicted that graphene based membranes may exhibit orders of magnitude with greater permeability than the current state of the art membranes. However, most of these studies are based on a single layer of graphene sheet. Experimental studies also show that it is difficult to fabricate leak-free porous graphene membranes with large surface area. In this work, we report a facile method to fabricate graphene-based composite ultrafiltration membrane in real downstream application. In order to achieve this, the wettability of graphene was increased by amine and carboxyl functionalization. Graphene was first carboxylated, using highly concentrated acid mixture (hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acids). The carboxylic group was further modified to acid chloride. Finally, the acid chloride modified graphene oxide was amine functionalized by using ethylene diamine. The functionalized graphene oxide was then attached to a highly hydrophilic water insoluble polymer (poly-acrylonitrile-co maleic-anhydride). The graphene oxide grafted poly acrylonitrile co maleimide (G-PANCMI) was used to prepare the dope solution. The hollow fibre ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by dry wet spinning. The prepared membranes were characterized thoroughly and the experimental data indicates that the G-PANCMI play an important role in enhancing the hydrophilicity/wettability, water permeability and selectivity of the PES UF membrane. The water contact angle (CAw) of the G-PANCMI modified PES membrane is reduced from 63.7±3.8o to 22.6±2.5o which is 64.5% reduction while, the permeability of the membrane increase to double. A long time filtration test was conducted using actual wastewater collected from the local wastewater treatment plant. The data shows that the novel ultra-wetting graphene based membrane can reduce the operating cost by up to 50% with its increased permeability and fouling resistance.

  • Continuous fabrication of composite hollow fiber membranes for humidification
    Speaker
    Isabel Jesswein
    University of Stuttgart
    Germany
    Biography

    Isabel Jesswein studied Process Engineering at the University of Stuttgart (Germany) with focus on Plastics Engineering and Interfacial Process Engineering. After receiving her Master degree, she started working at the Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Plasma Technology IGVP in Stuttgart as PhD-Student. Her research focuses on the production of hollow fiber membranes and their surface modification through dip coating processes for different fields of application.

    Abstract

    Membranes with good water vapor permeability and high selectivity towards air are interesting for external humidifier of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, dehydration of gases or heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. To optimize water vapor transport through the membrane, composite structures with a very thin selective layer are a preferred membrane type. A manufacturing process was established, where poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were fabricated via non-solvent-induced phase separation. Subsequently thin layers of polyvinyl alcohols (PVA) were coated with a continuous dip coating process and crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. Influencing parameters on the coating process, like surface tension and viscosity of the coating solution and coating velocity were investigated and correlated with resulting layer thicknesses according to the theory of Landau, Levich and Derjaguin, the so called LLD law. Furthermore the impact of the layer thickness on crosslinking, water vapor permeability, nitrogen permeability and thermal stability was studied. According to the coating parameters PVA layers were produced in a range of 0.3 µm–4.29 µm in good accordance with the LLD law. By coating the membranes the nitrogen permeance was reduced down to 0.01 m³/ (m² h bar), which indicates, that dense layers were formed. For the water vapor permeability values up to 4160 Barrer could be achieved at 80 °C and selectivity towards nitrogen of 289 at 25 °C was reached. Due to the manufacturing process thicker coating layers received a lower degree of crosslinking. As shown in Fig. 1 this phenomena causes a linear increasing water vapor permeability over the layer thickness. With a thermal stability test, which most membranes withstood, the usability of the composite membranes was proven. Coated hollow fiber membranes were continuously manufactured with a simple and fast process for humidification applications and these membranes showed very promising separation properties.

  • Cellulose based hollow fiber carbon membranes for CO2 removal from high pressure natural gas in subsea process
    Speaker
    Xuezhong He
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    Norway
    Biography

    Xuezhong is Major in Chemical Engineering, and focus on membrane technology for gas separation, especially CO2 capture from flue gas and natural gas sweetening.

    Abstract

    Natural gas (NG) is becoming one of the most attractive growing fuels for world primary energy consumption due to its availability, versatility and because it is a cleaner energy source compared to coal and crude oil. However, raw natural gas in reservoirs or wells usually contains considerable amount of light and heavy hydrocarbons (HHCs), as well as the impurities of water, H2S, CO2, N2 and helium. Natural gas sweetening is needed to remove acid gases of H2S and CO2 to meet the legal requirements and natural gas network grid specifications. Developing novel environmentally friendly and energy efficient technology for CO2 removal from natural gas is essential to improve the competition of natural gas processing plants. Although chemical absorption is still the state-of-the-art technology in this area, membrane technology has many advantages such as small footprint, low capital and operating costs, being environmentally friendly, and exhibiting process flexibility shows great potential. The challenges on natural gas sweetening membranes in the market today are the membrane compaction and plasticization, which points to the need of development on novel membrane materials for high pressure application in subsea process. Carbon membranes showed great potentials for CO2/CH4 selectivity. But the challenges on high production cost, brittleness of carbon fiber, low gas permeance due to the symmetric structure should be addressed by developing innovative low cost high performance asymmetric carbon membranes. Thus, in this work, we aim at developing mechanical strong, high performance asymmetric hollow fiber carbon membranes that can exceed CO2/CH4 Robeson upper bound (CO2 permeance >0.3 m3(STP)/(m2.h.bar) and CO2/CH4 selectivity >100) from cheap cellulose materials for natural gas sweetening. In order to achieve this objective: 1) Suitable ionic liquids with appropriate physicochemical property was designed by molecular dynamic simulation, and synthesized for dissolution of cellulose at room temperature (<50°C); 2) Asymmetric cellulose hollow fibers with desired structure and morphology will be spun from cellulose/ionic liquids dope solution by controlling liquid-liquid demixing mechanism based on equilibrium thermodynamics of ternary phase diagram; 3) Asymmetric, defect-free and straight hollow fiber carbon membranes will be prepared by controlling carbonization protocol, and employing post-oxidation and post-reduction; the prepared carbon membrane performance for high pressure CO2/CH4 separation will be tested and reported.

  • Electrokinetics tools to better characterize synthetic membranes and help understanding their behavior in contact with real fluids
    Speaker
    Maxime Pontie
    Angers University
    France
    Biography

    Maxime Pontie is working as a Professor at the University of Angers since 2004. He received a DSc degree under Professors Lemordant and Rumeau in 1996 from the University Francois Rabelais in Tours, France. After a Post-doctoral research study under Professor R W Bowen, Swansea University of Wales, UK, with a research topic dedicated to mass transfer mechanism in nano-filtration. His current research interests are water desalination membrane processes with a way to intensify the processes in a sustainable development approach. He has over 100 publications that have been cited over 100 times, and his publication H-index is 35 and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of reputed journals. He was a Board Member of the European Desalination Society from 2012 to 2017 and he is a Member of the French Membrane Society (CFM).

    Abstract

    The objective of the present work is to help in the choice of a membrane material depending on its application. Still today, this choice is not sufficiently rationalized, probably because all the usable characteristics of a given membrane are not easily affordable. In order to better adapt the membrane material to its application we have developed some electro-kinetics tools in order to determine: (i) transference numbers of electrolytes solutions across ionic-exchange membranes used in electro dialysis (ED) and (ii) streaming potential measurements in porous membranes (MF, UF) and also dense membranes (RO) for the diagnosis of internal fouling and/or the evaluation of apparition of micro porosities and isoelectric point displacement in RO/NF membranes.

Young Researchers' Forum
Speaker
  • Membrane crystallization of valuable salts from waste streams
    Speaker
    Israel Ruiz Salmón
    Université catholique de Louvain
    Belgium
    Biography

    Israel Ruiz Salmón graduated as a Chemical Engineer in 2013 and completed his Master Degree in Chemical Engineering with thesis on “Sustainable Consumption and Production” in 2014, at Universidad de Cantabria (Spain). From 1st October 2014, he started his PhD in Science and Technology under the supervision of Patricia Luis at Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium). The main objective of the thesis is to develop an integrated strategy combining several membrane-based technologies in order to capture CO2 from flue gases from combustion processes. Besides, this scenario also includes the use of membrane distillation/crystallization to obtain a product (i.e., salts) that can be reused in the industry as raw material (e.g., ceramic and cement industry). Laboratory work is combined with modeling and simulation from technical, economic and environmental point of view. His background also includes teaching collaboration at Université catholique de Louvain.

    Abstract

    Crystallization is an example of the technological evolution of a unit from the conventional operation to the high-efficiency process. Crystallization is a widely used unit operation for the separation and/or purification of crystalline solid products. Membrane crystallization aims at reaching the production or recovery of crystals by means of incorporating the novelty of the membrane technology instead of the traditional equipment. The removal and reduction of both anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutant disposals is one of the challenges of humanity must face. Membrane crystallization is presented as a promising technology to solve this issue. It can be used alone or in combination with other technologies, leading to reach synergy effects. In this work, synthetic salt aqueous solutions (Na2CO3, Na2SO4 and KNO3) have been treated using osmotic membrane distillation aiming to crystallize the salts. The influence of concentrations, flow rates and impurities were studied in order to demonstrate the potential of this technique, not only for crystal production but also to recover valuable compounds from wastewaters. Results of trans-membrane fluxes, mass transfer coefficients and crystal morphology proved the technical feasibility, making this technology an interesting alternative because of its low energy consumption, the high surface area per volume and its easy scale-up.

  • Development of reverse osmosis membrane based on UiO-66 nanoparticles deposited on polymeric support
    Speaker
    Dai Xuan Trinh
    Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
    Japan
    Biography

    Dai Xuan Trinh received his BSc (2007) and MSc (2009) at Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University. He is pursuing PhD degree under the supervision of Professor Taniike at School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. His research focuses on developing new MOF-based composite membranes having high selectivity, permeability and durability in water filtration. His research interest is in material design applied for environmental issues.

    Abstract

    Recently, materials with oriented nano-channels/pores have been widely applied for filtration membranes. Nanochannel-based materials such as stacked graphene oxide, carbon and metal hydroxide nanotubes endow membranes with the permeation flux of water from one to three orders of magnitudes higher than those of commercial membrane. Because of their exceptional water transport, these classes of materials are considered as next-generation materials for filtration membranes. Owning to their advantages such as nanochannels, highly porous structure and easily tunable pore size, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) sound a promising class of materials. In our recent publication, a novel composite membrane was fabricated by depositing nanoparticles of UiO-66, one of the most stable MOFs, on a microfiltration membrane of regenerated cellulose. The results proved that nanochannels of UiO-66 were the main pathway for water transport, resulting in a perfect rejection of methylene blue from aqueous solution while keeping an excellent permeability. However, the inter-particle voids among nanoparticles eventually cause the leakage of small solutes. In order to address this drawback, the filling of the voids for improving the performance of UiO-66 composite membranes is necessary. In this research, we utilized interfacial polymerization to fill the inter-particle voids of the UiO-66 composite membrane by cross-linked polyamide, forming a UiO-66-based thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane. Fig. 1 indicates the performance of the TFN membrane in comparison to a thin film composite (TFC) membrane, which was produced by a similar interfacial polymerization but in the absence of UiO-66 nanoparticles. The TFN membrane showed the permeability two times higher than that of the TFC membrane while retaining the salt rejection of 93.4%. This increment of the permeability was most plausibly because of the contribution of UiO-66 nanochannels (6 Å), suggesting that the UiO-66 was a very promising candidate for development of reverse osmosis membranes.

  • Scale-up and predicting flux-pressure relationships of tangential flow filtration (TFF) using a combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and ultra-scale-down (USD) techniques: Method and application
    Speaker
    Mohd Shawkat Hussain
    University College London
    United Kingdom
    Biography

    Mohd Shawkat Hussain is a Researcher PHD Student at London, United Kingdom.His Skills and Expertise in Bimechanical Engineering & Tissue Engineering.

    Abstract

    Ultra scale-down tools have demonstrated the huge benefit for rapid process development with reduced material requirement and better solutions. One of the key issues in USD techniques is its prediction accuracy of large scale performance. A new method is reported to predict the flux and transmembrane pressure relationships of a diafiltration and concentration applications for a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process, based on data generated using a novel Ultra Scale-Down (USD) membrane filtration device that uses simplistic dead-end mode of operation to mimic TFF. The system resistance, a combination of channel and applied system resistances, is constant for a given system configuration and can be easily determined by water tests. Flux-pressure drops relationships for TFF can be predicted by combining the characterised system resistances and USD model inputs. CFD studies, validated by experimental data, were carried out for TFF screened channel and the USD device, to develop correlations for averaged wall shear rates, which was used as the scale-up parameter. A flux prediction protocol was developed to predict TFF performance at scale using CFD techniques and USD data. Escherichia coli homogenate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as feed material for clarification/recovery of a 46 kDa antibody fragment and primary recovery case studies respectively. Scale-up was successfully carried out for the two applications, scaling up from 13.2 cm2 flat sheet disc (USD device) to 0.1 m2 V-screen cassette (TFF). Predicted and experimental flux-transmembrane pressure drop and transmission data showed good agreement, which achieved the improvement on the prediction accuracy.

  • PVA and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) nanocomposite membranes for CO2/CH4 separation at higher pressure
    Speaker
    Zaib Jahan
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    Norway
    Biography

    Zaib Jahan is studying in Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. She is from Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty of Natural Sciences.

    Abstract

    High moisture uptake and excellent mechanical properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) makes it an interesting material to be used as an additive in facilitated transport membranes. The objective of this work is to develop novel crystalline nanocellulose (CNC)/PVA nanocomposite membranes for biogas upgrading at higher pressure up to 15 bars. Different pH of casting solution has been investigated to optimize CO2 separation. The swelling rates were investigated for step change in RH from 0% to 93%. Permeation test results showed that performance of membrane could be enhanced by addition of an optimized amount of CNC and pH control. Membrane with 1% CNC (wt. % PVA) at pH 10 performed best under given set of conditions. Above this concentration of CNC, the CO2 permeation and selectivity decreased. It was also observed that increasing pressure caused a decrease in the performance of the membranes for CO2 separation. SEM results revealed that thickness of membranes were increased to CNC concentration in solutions. This study has shown that addition of 1% CNC resulted in maximum CO2 capture and Swelling at pH 10.

  • Optimization of ceramic membrane for oil-water separation
    Speaker
    Harjot Kaur
    Thapar University
    India
    Biography

    Harjot Kaur is working as Senior Research fellow and doing her PhD from Thapar University, India. She is working extensively in the field of membrane technology. Her area of specialization involves fabrication and characterization of low-cost ceramic membranes and polymer-ceramic composite membranes which can replace the need of the current nanofiltration and reverse osmosis technologies being used for treatment of wastewater. She has publications in international journals and have presented her research work in many national and international conferences.

    Abstract

    Low cost flat ceramic membrane supports were prepared using kaolin as the major constituent with varying amounts of carbonates (calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate) and sintered at 900°C. The prepared supports were subjected to SEM, XRD, porosity tests and permeation analysis. The porosity of membranes was increased by increasing the amount of calcium carbonate. The supports prepared using calcium carbonate had wider pore size distribution on the surface than those prepared using sodium carbonate. Small amount (10%) of sodium carbonate acts as a pore modifier resulting in smaller mean pore size, while large amount (>20%) of sodium carbonate blocks the pores by forming a sodium silicate layer and results in nonporous support. The mean pore size and water permeability were in the range 0.3–0.8 ?m and 78–1027 L/h.m2.bar, respectively. Relatively higher porosity, permeability (due to large pores) and chemical stability were obtained for calcium carbonate membranes, whereas, higher pore density values (due to small pores) and mechanical strength were obtained for sodium carbonate membranes. Therefore, calcium carbonate should be preferred over sodium carbonate for preparing highly porous ceramic membranes. Results indicated that 20 wt% calcium carbonate and 10 wt% sodium carbonate are optimum in terms of porosity, mean pore-size and pore-density. A selected membrane was validated for microfiltration of oil-in-water emulsions. At a transmembrane pressure of 103 kPa, about 98% rejection of oil is achieved for the emulsion containing 200 mg/L of oil.

  • The synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-95/matrimid® mixed matrix membranes for CO2, CH4 and H2 separations
    Speaker
    Ilke Ilicak
    University of Istanbul
    Turkey
    Biography

    Ilke Ilicak has received her BS degree in Chemical Engineering (2014), from Beykent University, Turkey. She has been studying as an MSc Student at Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department since May 2015. Her research interests include polymer synthesis and characterization, gas separation.

    Abstract

    Global warming is affect negatively such as loss of biodiversity, rising sea levels, transition of ecosystems, and reduction in value and variety of agricultural products. Membrane-based gas separation has a few advantages over traditional separation techniques. It has several industrially and economically important processes such as air purification, flue gas treatment, natural gas purification, hydrogen recovery from plant, and refineries. The permeability and selectivity of membranes are important to select materials for efficient separation. Polymeric membranes generally have been improved by incorporating the inorganic high surface area particles to enhance either the gas pair selectivity or the permeances. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have emerged as a novel type of crystalline porous material for the preparation of superior molecular sieve membranes attributed to their zeolite-like properties such as permanent porosity, uniform pore sizes, and exceptional thermal and chemical stability. In this work, zeolitic imidazolate framework-95 (ZIF-95) particles were prepared and incorporated into Matrimid® 5218 polyimide matrix, with loadings varying between 0 and 30 wt.%. Matrimid mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) loaded with different amounts of ZIF-95 were prepared by solution casting method and the interaction between ZIF-95 and matrimid was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Gas separation performance of Matrimid® 5218 /ZIF-95 mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with various ZIF-95 percentages were analyzed at 35 °C and 4 bar pressure. Surface and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of the mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were taken to serve the dispersion of particles in the polymer matrix. Results show that prospects and potential new development of ZIF materials are presented.

Day 2

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Novelties in membrane processes management by a sustainable approach: From autopsy to reuse of old reverse osmosis (RO) membranes

    Angers University
    France
    Biography

    Maxime Pontie is working as a Professor at the University of Angers since 2004. He received a DSc degree under Professors Lemordant and Rumeau in 1996 from the University Francois Rabelais in Tours, France. After a Post-doctoral research study under Professor R W Bowen, Swansea University of Wales, UK, with a research topic dedicated to mass transfer mechanism in nano-filtration. His current research interests are water desalination membrane processes with a way to intensify the processes in a sustainable development approach. He has over 100 publications that have been cited over 100 times, and his publication H-index is 35 and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of reputed journals. He was a Board Member of the European Desalination Society from 2012 to 2017 and he is a Member of the French Membrane Society (CFM).

    Abstract

    The objective of the present work, is first to estimate the degradation level of old RO membranes by an autopsy approach. Our membranes, taken in Mauritania (North West Africa), Tunisia, Senegal and also USA, were first autopsied in terms of water permeability, salts rejection, roughness changes and chemical analysis in order to diagnose the level of their degradation after their first life during sea/brackish waters desalination. Furthermore, old RO spacers (main part of old RO elements) in polypropylene (PP) were combined with low density polypropylene to elaborate a new flat sheet membrane dedicated to membrane distillation (MD). Last part is dedicated to RO raw materials, as alternative fuels feedstock via pyrolysis. Indeed membrane sheets and spacers are still having higher heating values than most of biomass fuels and we have presently estimated their potential, using thermal analysis.

  • High selective carbon membranes for water and gas separation

    Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems
    Germany
    Biography

    Hannes Richter is Head of the Department of “Nanoporous Membranes”. For his thesis on ceramic nanofiltration membranes (1998), he received the Bernhard-von-Cotta Award of the Freiberg University. He is experienced in amorphous membranes for 20 years and in zeolite and carbon membranes for more than 10 years. For the development of NaA-membranes and its scaling-up in to an industrial level, he received the Exceptional price of “Junior Scientist Award” competition at Materialsweek 2004, the “Innovation Award Middle Germany 2008 - Cluster Energy and Environment” and “Innovation Award Energy 2009” of the Society for the Promotion of Renewable Energy. For the development of ceramic nanofiltration membranes with a cut-off of 200 Da, he won the “Fraunhofer Award 2017”. He is the author of about 38 papers, gave more than 70 lectures in national and international congresses, thereof 26 invited presentations and is inventor of 8 patents.

    Abstract

    With a lattice plane distance in the range of the kinetic diameter of small gas molecules, carbon is an interesting material for membranes. To overcome problems of low mechanical stability, thin carbon layers (<1 µm thickness) were prepared inside mechanical stable ceramic support tubes by coating with organic precursor solutions, drying, cross linking and pyrolysing in inert atmosphere. Lattice plane distances of 0.4 nm were measured by electron diffraction. A high H2-permeance of around 5 m³/(m²?h?bar) and nearly no permeation for bigger molecules of >4 nm diameter giving evidence for a mole sieving behavior. Nearly pure H2 of >99% was separated through the membranes by mixed gas measurements in H2/C3H8 mixtures at temperatures up to 300°C and pressure up to 10 bar. By intercalation of hetero atoms, the properties were transformed to an adsorption selective mechanism giving CO2-selective carbon membranes. The membranes were scaled up to 0.5 m long membrane elements and successfully tested in a side stream of a commercially used biogas fermenter. A pore condensing mechanism can be used for the separation of H2O from hot gas streams. Infinite high selectivities for mixtures of water with gases like N2, CO2, CH4 and H2 were measured at 280°C and 11 bar. A robust membrane performance was found in first tests of in-situ water separation from methanization of CO2 and H2.

Membrane Development and Characterization|Gas and Vapour Separation|Ion Exchange Membrane
Chair
  • Allied Academies Membrane Science 2017 Chair Speaker Hannes Richter photo
    Hannes Richter
    Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems
    Germany
Co-Chair
Speaker
  • Analysis of the dynamics of hydrogen permeation across Pd-based metallic membranes using gas phase impedance spectroscopy
    Speaker
    P Millet
    Université Paris-Sud
    France
    Biography

    P. Millet is an electrochemical engineer, Professor of physical-chemistry at the University of Paris-Sud, campus of Orsay. He graduated in 1986 from the French “Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Electrochimie et d’Electrométallurgie de Grenoble” (ENSEEG), “Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble” (INPG). He completed his PhD thesis on water electrolysis in 1989, at the French “Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Grenoble” (CEA-CENG). He is currently Director of the “Laboratory of Research and Innovation in Electrochemistry for Energy applications” (http://www.icmmo.u-psud.fr/Labos/ERIEE/index_eng.php), at the French “Institute of Molecular Chemistry and Material Science” in Orsay. His research activities focus on water electrolysis, water photo-dissociation, carbon dioxide electro- and photo-reduction, hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, hydrogen compression and hydrogen permeation across metallic membranes. He is the author of more than 150 research papers and book chapters and has presented more than 150 oral communications at national and international conferences.

    Abstract

    Hydrogen cross-permeation across dense Pd-based metallic membranes is a process of great practical interest for hydrogen purification but also for hydrogen compression. Hydrogen selective permeation across such membranes follows a multi-step reaction mechanism that involves surface steps (H2 dissociation into H ad-atoms on the upstream side and H ad-atoms recombination into H2 on the downstream side) as well as the diffusion-controlled transport of H ad-atoms in bulk regions. Each of these elementary steps can be rate-determining, depending on membrane characteristics (composition, thickness, microstructure), operating conditions and boundary conditions. Hence, the optimization of the hydrogen permeation kinetics first requires to separately measure surface and bulk rate constants associated to these individual steps. Gas-phase impedance spectroscopy (also called pneumato-chemical impedance spectroscopy or PIS) is a rather simple but nonetheless powerful technique that can be used for that purpose. Basic principles were introduced in 2005. PIS analysis can be viewed as the direct transposition of the well-known electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to solid-gas reactions. Based on an analogy between pressure and electrical potential on one hand, cross-permeating gas flow and electric current on the other hand, gas-phase transfer functions (PIS-impedance) are obtained by taking the ratio of the Fourier transforms of any pressure/H2 mass flow signal pairs. So far, PIS analysis has been used to analyze the dynamics of solid-gas interactions in several systems such as gas (H2) storage in metal-hydride-forming materials, gas (H2) permeation across metallic membranes and H2/O2 fuel cells. Experiments are usually easy to implement, using conventional Sievert’s-type setups. The technique is appropriate to investigate non-linear systems such as those showing strong hysteresis. The purpose of this communication is to provide a detailed description of the technique and to present recent advances in the characterization and optimization of dense metallic membranes (with both planar and cylindrical geometries), especially those used for operation in transient conditions of flow.

  • Benzene plume behavior in a saturated subsurface system: Influence of the mass transfer and dispersion coefficients
    Speaker
    Hatem Asal Gzar
    Wasit University
    Iraq
    Biography

    Hatem Asal Gzar received his PhD in Environmental Engineering from University of Baghdad 2010, Iraq. He works as lecturer in Environmental Engineering Department for higher studies at University of Baghdad from January 1999 to October 2013. He was a Member in Foundation of the Undergraduate Program in Environmental Engineering Department in 2005 at University of Baghdad. From October 2013, till present he has been working at Wasit University, Iraq. He works as Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering Department. At the same department, he was a Member in Foundation and Staff of Water Resources Engineering Branch for higher studies, he was Lecturer for two subjects, the first is groundwater and seepage and the second is advanced wastewater treatment. He has been supervisor for many thesis and dissertations. He has been a Member in many Examination Committees of higher studies inside and outside of Iraq. He has huge expertise in evaluating many research papers for many international and local scientific journals and conferences. He has worked for about 15 years as a Member in Environmental Consultancy Bureau, Baghdad University.

    Abstract

    Understanding of contaminant transport in porous media has improved greatly in recent years; there is enormous interest in developing computerized contaminant transport models. The present study investigates laboratory scale dissolution kinetics using numerical simulations of benzene releases and dissolved phase transport in homogeneous sand tank of 120 cm×40 cm×35 cm dimensions. A finite element numerical model developed to solve the three-dimensional transport equation. The benzene-water interface dissolved concentration assumed to be equal the solubility concentration. Five interstitial velocities were adopted. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dx at all velocities were determined from tracer transport analysis experiments, the upper and lower values were 0.284 and 1.014 cm2/hr respectively. Dy, and Dz were computed to be 0.1 of Dx value. To study the plume distribution from pool area along the centerline (x) in the horizontal-vertical (x-z) plane of the aquifer, a daily concentration values for 60 day at depths of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 cm in the laboratory aquifer were found at low and high velocities. The vertical spreading of benzene dissolved phase was noticed to be relatively weak as the concentration increased from 140.5 mg/l (7.94% of solubility) to 270.6 mg/l (15.29 % of solubility) when time increased from 1 day to 60 days at velocity of 0.90 cm/hr. Benzene reached to zero concentration at vertical distance between about 7 cm and 9 cm. In general, concentration levels decrease as the vertical distance from the pool increases. The average mass transfer coefficient increased with increasing interstitial velocity towards a limiting value. The dimensionless mass transfer behavior was expressed in terms of the modified Sherwood number. The calculated characteristic pool length, and effective molecular diffusion coefficient in the porous medium were 13.29 cm and 2.47×10-2 cm2/hr respectively. The average Peclet numbers; which are representing the advective –dispersive mass transfer in the x and y directions of pool area; values were from 23.73 to 26.63 in x-direction and from 237.34 to 266.30 in y-direction. While the average Sherwood number were from 8.66 to 32.82.

  • Polymer electrolytes membranes for energy applications
    Speaker
    Asmae Mokrini
    National Research Council of Canada
    Canada
    Biography

    Asmae Mokrini is the Team Lead of Materials for Energy Technologies at the Automotive and Surface Transportation Portfolio at the National Research Council of Canada. She obtained her PhD from the Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Barcelona in 1998, and an Industrial Master’s degree in Polymer Science and Engineering from the University Menedez-Pelayo in Madrid in 2000. Her research interests are mainly on the development of materials and manufacturing processes for energy applications. She joined NRC in 2003, where she is presently managing a team of 10 researchers and technical officers working on materials and components development, testing protocols and R2R manufacturing of different battery, and fuel cell and technologies for EVs.

    Abstract

    Polymer electrolyte membranes are cost effective and versatile components, useful for a broad spectrum of electrochemical energy generation and storage systems powering electric vehicles. They offer potential advantages such as: (1) ease of fabrication using roll-to-roll automated techniques lowering cost and facilitating quality control, (2) capability of manufacturing large area thin films with high flexibility, good interfacial electrode/electrolyte contacts and (3) possibility of using tailored additives to achieve required properties. Fuel cell and battery electric vehicles, both use electric drivetrains, where battery electric vehicles (BEV) power their motors solely with batteries, while fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are hybrids, powered by a hydrogen fuel cell and a small battery. FCEV are based mainly on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, using a polymer electrolyte based on perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers. This technology delivers high power density and offers the advantages of a fast start-up time, low weight and volume, and favorable power-to-weight ratio, compared to other fuel cell technologies. However, lowering cost and improving durability of all components in general and PEM in particular, are still challenging large scale deployment of FCEV. BEV is mainly based on Li-ion technology that uses organic liquids as electrolytes. Polymer electrolytes hold the promise of providing energy storage with high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities at high power densities, yet with far less safety issues relative to those associated with conventional liquid or gel-based lithium-ion batteries, such as side reactions, gas venting, and the need for sophisticated seals to contain the liquids. However, they are still limited by the level of conductivity of the solid electrolyte at room temperature, requiring the use of external heating systems to increase lithium ion transport. The development of safe, more conductive solid electrolytes, together with low-cost manufacturing processes are keys to further improvement of this technology for electric vehicles. This presentation shows NRC capabilities in developing, assessing and manufacturing of advanced mechanically robust and flexible polymer based ion conducting solid state electrolyte membranes for applications in fuel cells and lithium based batteries to power electric vehicles. Technologies developed are addressing current challenges for FCEV and BEV and are capable of meeting the demands of high volume production, cost, performance and durability requirements for automotive applications.

  • Electrochemistry, electrokinetics and microCT analysis of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes
    Speaker
    Zdenek Slouka
    University of Chemistry and Technology
    Czech Republic
    Biography

    Zdenek Slouka holds a position of an Associate Professor (starting June 1st 2017) in the Dept. of Chemical Engineering at the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague. He earned his MSc and PhD in Chemical Engineering at the same university in 2004 and 2008, respectively. He received a two-year Postdoctoral Training studying the invasion of red blood cells by malaria parasites under the supervision of Kasturi Haldar who is a Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame, USA. He then followed as a Postdoctoral Fellow in Prof. Hsueh-Chia Chang Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame. During his second Postdoctoral Training, he focused on development of point-of-care diagnostics platforms based on the use of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes. His research interest include microfluidics, microfluidic fabrication technologies, electrokinetics, electrochemistry, electromembrane separation, and biosensing.

    Abstract

    Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes are industrially important separation media used in electromembrane separation processes such as electrodialysis and electrodeionization. They consist of a functional component (milled ion-exchange resin) providing required selectivity and nonfunctional components (binder, polymeric mesh) providing physical embodiment and mechanical strength of the membrane. The production of these membranes does not allow one to control precisely the distribution of functional ion-exchange resin within the nonconductive binder. However, the structure of the membranes plays important role in their performance and in turn of the whole electromembrane separation units. We developed an experimental system that allows us to investigate a rather small piece of a heterogeneous ion- exchange membrane by performing different types of experiments: (i) standard electrochemical characterization (current-voltage characteristics, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry); (ii) optical and fluorescent observation of processes occurring at the membrane – electrolyte interfaces; and (iii) 3D reconstruction of the same piece of the membrane in its fully swollen state by micro-computed tomography. We process all experimental data together and look for links between the observed behavior and the structure of the membrane, such as surface area of conductive domains and transition times, the structure of the membrane and conductivity, the structure of the membrane and the occurrence of mechanisms driving overlimiting electrical currents. The occurrence of the over limiting current is a subject of tumultuous scientific debates and the general scientific consensus is that there is no single mechanism. In our case we mainly study electroconvection and water splitting as phenomena allowing current larger than the limiting one to go through the system.

  • Spin transport of the frustrated quasi-two-dimensional XY-like anti-ferromagnet
    Speaker
    L S Lima
    Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais
    Brazil
    Biography

    Leonardo dos Santos Lima has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Brazil and postdoctoral studies from Tecnische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany. He is professor of physics of Departamento de Física e Matemática Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais. He has published more than 40 papers in international journals .

    Abstract

    We use the Self Consistent Harmonic Approximation together with the Kubo formalism of the linear response theory to study the spin transport in the two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet in a square lattice with easy-plane ion single anisotropy. The regular part of the spin conductivity ?reg???? is determined for several values of the critical ion single parameter Dc, which separates the low D region from the large D quantum paramagnetic phase. We have obtained an abrupt change in the spin conductivity in the discontinuity points of the graphic Dc vs. ?, where the system presents a quantum phase transition.

Poster Presentations
Speaker
  • Swelling of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes analyzed by micro-computed tomography
    Speaker
    Lucie Vobecka
    University of Chemistry and Technology
    Czech Republic
    Biography

    Lucie Vobecká received her PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic, in 2015. Her PhD thesis was drawn up at the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague. She is currently a Post-doctoral Fellow in the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague. Her research areas include surface and interfacial phenomena in liquid–liquid or gas–liquid systems and behavior of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes in DC electric field.

    Abstract

    Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes are a type of ion-exchange medium that incorporates several functional components. These components are ion-exchange resin particles, polymeric binder and polymeric fibers. Each of the components provides either required functionality or mechanical support so that the membranes can be efficiently used in industrial electro-separation units. One usually prepares such membranes by blending finely ground resin particles and polymeric pellets followed by their heating and laminating in between two layers of polymeric fibers. This technology enables high-scale production of these membranes; however, their structure is entirely random without any possibility for its control. To study the effect of surface and volume heterogeneities of these membranes on their behavior and performance, we started to analyze small samples of membranes by micro computed tomography (?CT). ?CT is a technique that uses X-rays to “look inside” materials and nontransparent systems. In case there are multiple components (phases) present, having different attenuation properties towards the transmitted X-ray, ?CT can yield complete structural analysis of the investigated systems. In this work, we study heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes that are analyzed in dry and then swollen state after immersion into KCl solutions of various concentrations. First, segmentation of obtained raw data is carried out followed by the analysis of the actual composition of the membranes and related changes caused by the swelling or shrinking of the membranes in different KCl solutions. In this contribution, we will present our experimental set up for analysis of wet samples by ?CT and selected experimental results followed by discussion of the observed structural changes of the membranes.

  • Taurine extraction from waste seafood canning using membrane processes.
    Speaker
    Beatriz Cancino-Madariaga
    Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María
    Chile
    Biography

    Beatriz Cancino-Madariaga is Biochemical Engineer and obtained her Doctorate degree in Mechanical Engineering in a Sandwich Promotion between TU Munchen (Germany) and Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM) in Chile. She was the First Woman to obtain the Dr Ing degree at the UTFSM Chilean University. She did a short stay in TUHH (Germany), in Verfahrenstechnik Department where she worked with membranes. She has worked 12 years as Full Professor in Food Engineering School at the Universidad Catolica de Valparaíso (Chile), working in Membrane Processes. Later on, she founded her own Consulting and continued teaching at the UTFSM and Universidad de Chile and has given lecture for pre and post-grade students and also those doing project related with membrane processes.

    Abstract

    Taurine (Tau) is an organic acid with antioxidant properties. There is a special interest in the cosmetic industry in the use of Tau obtained from natural sources, including seafood. In this study, membrane processes were used to separate and concentrate Tau from seafood canning industry wastewater. For this, the first step was the treatment of the seafood wastewater to separate big particles, oil and shells from the original liquid. The recovery of Tau in this phase was near 75%. In a second step, we applied microfiltration (MF), followed by ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) processes using ceramic membranes. Two pore sizes were assayed for MF: 0.45 um and 0.2 um. The cut off for UF ceramic membranes was 1 kDa to separate allergenic proteins such as tropomyosin (38 kDa) that could be present in the juice. Tau is not retained by UF membranes, since the size of this molecule is approximately 125 g/mol. Consequently, NF membranes should be used to retain Tau and separate it from the salts present in the remaining seafood juice. Six types of NF membranes were tested. The final steps in the flow-sheet were sedimentation, pasteurization, grow filtration, MF (0.2 µm), UF (1 kDa), and NF. The results showed that MF retains all the turbidity and Tau permeation is directly proportional to the volume in the permeate. The UF process retains the proteins, and the permeation of Tau depends mainly on the permeate volume. Consequently, more permeate reflects higher Tau recovery. NF process also retains salts with high MW, and the high concentration of small ions enables the use of the concentrate obtained directly in cosmetic products. Thus, further dilution with water was necessary, followed by a second NF process, reaching Tau retention of nearly 65%.

  • A resistance-based approach to scale-up of membrane filtration
    Speaker
    Susanne Haindl
    Leibniz University Hannover
    Germany
    Biography

    Susanne Haindl finished her MSc in Chemistry in 2016 and joined Sartorius Stedim Biotech for her PhD thesis in the same year. Her work is about process filtration in biopharmaceutical industry, and the focus is both on the characterization of protein model solutions and on the examination of filtration process conditions.

    Abstract

    In bioprocessing, membrane filtration is a necessary tool for clarification of streams, purification and sterilization. For process evaluation, usually test filtrations are made with small-scale filter discs. A commonly discussed approach to the scale-up of membrane filtration is the Vmax-model. There the maximum throughput (Vmax) of the test solution is determined. According to the batch size, the necessary filter area can be calculated using a safety factor. In this work, a resistance-approach was chosen. As a test membrane a 0.2 µm PES-Membrane is used. The membrane resistance is calculated and its change examined in dependence of throughput under different process conditions. As a test fluid, a particulate solution is used that, according to previous measurements, shows no relationship between the process conditions and the filtration performance.

  • Mechanical, thermal and swelling properties of cellulose nanocrystals/PVA nanocomposites membranes
    Speaker
    Zaib Jahan
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    Norway
    Biography

    Zaib Jahan is studying in Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. She is from Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty of Natural Sciences.

    Abstract

    Separation of carbon dioxide from natural gas is an important issue since it contributes to the economy of a country by increasing the energy content of the natural gas. The main purpose of the study was about polymeric membranes and how to increase selectivities and permeabilities of polymers for gas separation applications. Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers are considered as the next-generation of membrane materials, because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability. This study explores the influence of ortho-position hydroxyl functional group structures on gas transport properties of polyimides and their thermally rearranged polymers. For this work, HAB-6FDA polyimide was synthesized from 3,3-dihydroxy-4,4-diamino-biphenyl (HAB) and 4,4?-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) by a two-step polycondensation method with chemical imidization. And also zeolitic imidazolate framework-11 (ZIF-11) crystals were successfully synthesized as porous filler. Mixed matrix membranes were fabricated using HAB-6FDA polyimide and a ZIF-11. The HAB-6FDA/ZIF-11 polyimide was partially converted to its corresponding thermally rearranged (TR) polymer by thermal treatments at different temperatures. The rearrangement reaction was performed at temperatures from 350 to 400 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle size analysis were achieved to investigate ZIF-11 structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), XRD and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis were also carried out to characterize mixed matrix membranes. Surface and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of the mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were taken to examine the dispersion of particles in the polymer matrix. No visible agglomeration between ZIF-11 particles and the polymer matrix was spotted, even at high % ZIF-11 loading. Gas separation performance of HAB-6FDA/ZIF-11 mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with various ZIF-11 percentages were investigated at 35 °C temperature and 4 bar pressure. MMMs were described by the measured permeabilities of H2, CO2 and CH4 gases and ideal gas selectivities were determined. Permeability of all gases increased with increasing ZIF-11 percentages.

  • Synthesis, characterization and gas permeation study of HAB-6FDA/ZIF-11 mixed matrix membranes
    Speaker
    Ayse Gizem Kirikci
    University of Istanbul
    Turkey
    Biography

    She has recevied her B.S. degree Chemical Engineering (2014), from Istanbul University. She has been studying as a M.Sc student at Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department since september, 2014. Her research interests include polymer synthesis and characterization, gas separation. She has been currently working as a research student on Project sponsored by TUBITAK ( The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) about thermally rearranged polymer membrane for gas seperation) since 2016.

    Abstract

    Separation of carbon dioxide from natural gas is an important issue since it contributes to the economy of a country by increasing the energy content of the natural gas. The main purpose of the study was about polymeric membranes and how to increase selectivities and permeabilities of polymers for gas separation applications. Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers are considered as the next-generation of membrane materials, because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability. This study explores the influence of ortho-position hydroxyl functional group structures on gas transport properties of polyimides and their thermally rearranged polymers. For this work, HAB-6FDA polyimide was synthesized from 3,3-dihydroxy-4,4-diamino-biphenyl (HAB) and 4,4?-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) by a two-step polycondensation method with chemical imidization. And also zeolitic imidazolate framework-11 (ZIF-11) crystals were successfully synthesized as porous filler. Mixed matrix membranes were fabricated using HAB-6FDA polyimide and a ZIF-11. The HAB-6FDA/ZIF-11 polyimide was partially converted to its corresponding thermally rearranged (TR) polymer by thermal treatments at different temperatures. The rearrangement reaction was performed at temperatures from 350 to 400 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle size analysis were achieved to investigate ZIF-11 structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), XRD and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis were also carried out to characterize mixed matrix membranes. Surface and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images of the mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were taken to examine the dispersion of particles in the polymer matrix. No visible agglomeration between ZIF-11 particles and the polymer matrix was spotted, even at high % ZIF-11 loading. Gas separation performance of HAB-6FDA/ZIF-11 mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with various ZIF-11 percentages were investigated at 35 °C temperature and 4 bar pressure. MMMs were described by the measured permeabilities of H2, CO2 and CH4 gases and ideal gas selectivities were determined. Permeability of all gases increased with increasing ZIF-11 percentages. Acknowledgement: 'This research work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜB?TAK), Grant No: KBAG-115Z392'.

E- Poster Presentation
Speaker
  • Increasing the performance of a methane steam reforming reaction in a membrane reactor by multi-objective optimization
    Speaker
    Marjan Alavi
    Shiraz University
    Iran
    Biography

    Marjan Alavi is studying at the Shiraz University, Iran.

    Abstract

    Steam reforming of methane (SRM) is the main route of hydrogen production process. It is possible to carry out this reaction in a membrane reactor (MR). A hydrogen perm-selective membrane is able to separate the produced H2 in the reactor and increase methane conversion by shifting the equilibrium. This H2 removal may also increase the risk of catalyst deactivation due to coke formation in the system. The amount of permeation through the membrane and membrane position/configuration are some of the main parameters that can affect methane conversion, H2 recovery and coke formation. In this study, an MR is simulated by using a one dimensional model. In order to find the optimum condition for this MR, in which CH4 conversion, H2 recovery are maximized and the risk of coke formation is minimized, a multi-objective algorithm is employed to achieve the Pareto front in a three objective space. In the optimized condition methane conversion and hydrogen recovery are improved and also, the possibility of coke formation in the MR is reduced.

  • Supramolecular aspect of advanced membrane technology
    Speaker
    Uma Sharma
    Vikram University
    India
    Biography

    Uma Sharma received M.Sc. Physical Chemistry in1981, M.Phil. in1982 and Ph.D. In 1985 under the guidance of ( Prof. V.W. Bhagwat ,Alexander von Humboldt Fellow) from Vikram University,Ujjain India. In 1989 she received Indian Science Congress Young Scientist Award, INSA visiting Fellowship and in 2006 Indo Hungarian Fellowship. She received Dr D.S.Bhakuni Award (2013) by Indian Chemical Society,Kolkata. A major focus of her research is Supramolecular Chemistry - Design and synthesis of podands and redox switched ionophores/receptors and their use in facillitated transport of biologically important metal ions/ amino acids/ carbohydrates through Liquid Membrane Systems. Biocompatibility of fullerenes and drug encapsulation in chitosan based nanoparticles are the other field of her interest.She is fellow of Indian Membrane Society and Indian Science Congress Association,Kolkata.She delivered more than 20 invited talks on Membrane Science and Supramolecular Chemistry. Synthesis of molecular containers i.e.Cucurbiturils, Rotaxanes and Dendrimers for specific purpose as sensors and molecular devices are her future projects .

    Abstract

    In 1987, D J Cram, J M Lehn and C J Pedersen were awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for their development and use of molecules with structure specific interactions of high selectivity” and coined the term Supramolecular Chemistry. Jean Marie Lehn further linked supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry due to lability/reversibility of noncovalent interactions which enable constitutional variations and the transition from design to selection through exchange, uptake and release of the molecular components of supramolecular entity. Supramolecular chemistry has been invaluable in elucidating some of the principles underlying the structure and function of the membranes. Molecular recognition is the biochemical basis of supramolecular chemistry and results in selective binding. The separation and selection of species from chemical or biological molecular pool is dependent upon its selective interaction with molecular receptors. Design and synthesis of molecular receptors/ionophores/enzymes/synthetic transporters for specific purpose is the revolutionary concept in advanced day membrane technology. When chemical reactions are coupled with membrane permeation many interesting phenomena can occur. If reactions are carried out inside the membrane,the membrane acts as more than a partition and these membranes are called reactive membranes with increased flux - a revolution in unit operation and reactive membrane engineering. Liquid Membrane systems transport various substrates as cations/anions/amino acids/neutral species/drugs from one phase to another facilitated by designed ionophores/receptors. Reactive membranes can be prepared by loading a selected membrane support with specially designed selective carriers/enzymes/membrane mimetic agents/natural and synthetic receptors. Reactivity control in membrane separation has been expected exponential growth in analytical, environmental and biomedical applications.

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